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Space Exploration

Phobos Space Program

space probes, planet Mars, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Cold War space race, Earth orbit

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Phobos (space program), two space probes that the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) launched in 1988 toward Phobos, the innermost moon of the planet Mars. The USSR launched both Phobos 1 and Phobos 2 in July 1988. The probes were designed to study the sun and Mars as they traveled to Phobos, where they would each deposit a small lander. Phobos 1 failed soon after leaving Earth orbit. Phobos 2 successfully studied the sun and Mars, but failed as it neared Phobos. The Phobos program took place as the Cold War space race between the United States and the USSR began shifting toward cooperation in the post-Cold War era. Western European governments took part, and individual U.S. researchers worked with European and Soviet engineers and scientists.

Contributors

Portree, David S. F., B.A., M.S.

Freelance writer and space historian. Author of "Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology".



Article key phrases:

space probes, planet Mars, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Cold War space race, Earth orbit, USSR, space program, cooperation, scientists, sun, researchers, United States, place, July

 
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